Robert Zondervan is a DO/PhD student studying in the lab of Peter Reeves, PhD where his research is focused on the pathophysiology of degenerative disc disease in the spine. Mr. Zondervan is currently investigating the impact of spinal surgical instrumentation on adjacent segment complex loading (a pathway known to induce degeneration). To study complex loading, cadaver spines undergo arthrodesis (spinal fusion) or arthroplasty (disc replacement) and then kinematic and kinetic data are measured while the spine is axially loaded and dynamically perturbed. Results from this research will improve device design and surgical techniques to reduce the incidence of adjacent segment disease. After completion of his degrees at Michigan State, Mr. Zondervan plans to join a residency in orthopaedic surgery.